Dual-Action Heteromultivalent Glycopolymers Stringently Block and Arrest Influenza A Virus Infection In Vitro and Ex Vivo
B. Parshad, M. N. Schlecht, M. Baumgardt, K. Ludwig, C. Nie, A. Rimondi, K. Hönzke, S. Angioletti-Uberti, V. Khatri, P. Schneider, A. Herrmann, R. Haag, A. C. Hocke, T. Wolff, S. Bhatia – 2023
Here, we demonstrate the concerted inhibition of different influenza A virus (IAV) strains using a low-molecular-weight dual-action linear polymer. The 6′-sialyllactose and zanamivir conjugates of linear polyglycerol are optimized for simultaneous targeting of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase on the IAV surface. Independent of IAV subtypes, hemagglutination inhibition data suggest better adsorption of the heteromultivalent polymer than homomultivalent analogs onto the virus surface. Cryo-TEM images imply heteromultivalent compound-mediated virus aggregation. The optimized polymeric nanomaterial inhibits >99.9% propagation of various IAV strains 24 h postinfection in vitro at low nM concentrations and is up to 10000× more effective than the commercial zanamivir drug. In a human lung ex vivo multicyclic infection setup, the heteromultivalent polymer outperforms the commercial drug zanamivir and homomultivalent analogs or their physical mixtures. This study authenticates the translational potential of the dual-action targeting approach using small polymers for broad and high antiviral efficacy.