Biocatalytic Route to Novel Sugar-PEG Based Polymers for Drug Delivery Applications
S. Bhatia, A. Mohr, D. Mathur, V. S. Parmar, R. Haag, A. K. Prasad – 2011
Sugar-PEG-based polymers were synthesized by enzymatic copolymerization of 4-C-hydroxymethyl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-β-l-threo-pentofuranose/4-C-hydroxymethyl-1,2-O-benzylidene-β-l-threo-pentofuranose/4-C-hydroxymethyl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-3-O-pentyl-β-l-threo-pentofuranose with PEG-600 dimethyl ester using Novozyme-435 (Candida antarctica lipase immobilized on polyacrylate). Carbohydrate monomers were obtained by the multistep synthesis starting from diacetone-d-glucose and PEG-600 dimethyl ester, which was in turn obtained by the esterification of the commercially available PEG-600 diacid. Aggregation studies on the copolymers revealed that in aqueous solution those polymers bearing the hydrophobic pentyl/benzylidene moiety spontaneously self-assembled into supramolecular aggregates. The critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of polymers was determined by surface tension measurements, and the precise size of the aggregates was obtained by dynamic light scattering. The polymeric aggregates were further explored for their drug encapsulation properties in buffered aqueous solution of pH 7.4 (37 °C) using nile red as a hydrophobic model compound by means of UV/vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. There was no significant encapsulation in polymer synthesized from 4-C-hydroxymethyl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-β-l-threo-pentofuranose because this sugar monomer does not contain a big hydrophobic moiety as the pentyl or the benzylidene moiety. Nile red release study was performed at pH 5.0 and 7.4 using fluorescence spectroscopy. The release of nile red from the polymer bearing benzylidene moiety and pentyl moiety was observed with a half life of 3.4 and 2.0 h, respectively at pH 5.0, whereas no release was found at pH 7.4.