Characterization of a unique dihydropyrimidinone, ethyl 4-(4′-heptanoyloxyphenyl)-6-methyl-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2-one-5-carboxylate, as an effective antithrombotic agent in a rat experimental model
N. Priya, P. Singh, S. Bhatia, B. Medhi, A. K. Prasad, V. S. Parmar, H. G. Raj – 2011
Objectives To evaluate the potential of a novel dihydropyrimidinone, ethyl 4-(4′-heptanoyloxyphenyl)-6-methyl-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2-one-5-carboxylate (H-DHPM), as a calcium channel blocker, endowed with the ability to inhibit platelet aggregation effectively. Methods In-vitro and in-vivo studies were conducted for the determination of antiplatelet activity using adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen or thrombin as inducers. Calcium channel blocking activity and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity were monitored. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated prothrombotic conditions were developed in rats to study the efficacy of H-DHPM to suitably modulate the inflammatory mediators such as inducible NOS (iNOS) and tissue factor. The cGMP level and endothelial NOS (eNOS) expression were checked in aortic homogenate of LPS-challenged rats pretreated with H-DHPM. The effect of H-DHPM on FeCl3-induced thrombus formation in rats was examined. Key findings The concentrations of H-DHPM required to give 50% inhibition (IC50) of in-vitro platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen or thrombin were 98.2 ± 2.1, 74.5 ± 2.3 and 180.7 ± 3.4 µm, respectively. H-DHPM at a dose of 52.0 ± 0.02 mg/kg (133 µmol/kg) was found to optimally inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation in-vivo. The level of nitric oxide was found to be up to 9 ± 0.08-fold in H-DHPM-treated platelets in-vitro and 8.2 ± 0.05-fold in H-DHPM-pretreated rat platelets in-vivo compared with control. OH-DHPM, the parent compound was found to be ineffective both in-vitro and in-vivo. H-DHPM-pretreated rats were able to resist significantly the prothrombotic changes caused by LPS by blunting the expression of iNOS, tissue factor and diminishing the increased level of cGMP to normal. H-DHPM enhanced the eNOS expression in aorta of rats treated with LPS. H-DHPM displayed synergy with antiplatelet activity of aspirin even at lower doses. H-DHPM was found to inhibit the LPS-induced platelet aggregation in younger as well as older rats. H-DHPM exhibited the ability to markedly decrease FeCl3-induced thrombus formation in rats. Conclusions H-DHPM has the attributes of a promising potent antiplatelet candidate molecule that should attract further study. H-DHPM displayed antiplatelet activity both in vivo and in vitro, which was due partially by lowering the intraplatelet calcium concentration.