Total synthesis of the death cap toxin Phalloidin - atropoisomer-selectivity explained by molecular-dynamics simulations
G. Yao, J.-O. Joswig, B.G. Keller, R. Süssmuth; – 2019
Phallotoxins and amatoxins are a group of prominent peptide toxins produced by the death cap mushroom Amanita phalloides. Phalloidin is a bicyclic cyclopeptide with an unusual tryptathionin thioether bridge. It is a potent stabilizer of filamentous actin and in a fluorescently labeled form widely used as a probe for actin binding. Herein, we report the enantioselective synthesis of the key amino acid (2S,4R)‐4,5‐dihydroxy‐leucine as a basis for the first total synthesis of phalloidin, which was accomplished by two different synthesis strategies. Molecular‐dynamics simulations provided insights into the conformational flexibility of peptide intermediates of different reaction strategies and showed that this flexibility is critical for the formation of atropoisomers. By simulating the intermediates, rather than the final product, molecular‐dynamics simulations will become a decisive tool in orchestrating the sequence of ring formation reactions of complex cyclic peptides.