Synthesis and antioxidant evaluation of (S,S)- and (R,R)-secoisolariciresinol diglucosides (SDGs)
O.P. Mishra, N. Simmons, S. Tyagi, R. Pietrofesa, V. Shuvaev, R.A. Valiulin, P. Heretsch, K.C. Nicolaou, M. Christofidou-Solomidou – 2013
Secoisolariciresinol diglucosides (SDGs) (S,S)-SDG-1 (major isomer in flaxseed) and (R,R)-SDG-2 (minor isomer in flaxseed) were synthesized from vanillin via secoisolariciresinol (6) and glucosyl donor 7 through a concise route that involved chromatographic separation of diastereomeric diglucoside derivatives (S,S)-8 and (R,R)-9. Synthetic (S,S)-SDG-1 and (R,R)-SDG-2 exhibited potent antioxidant properties (EC50 = 292.17 ± 27.71 μM and 331.94 ± 21.21 μM, respectively), which compared well with that of natural (S,S)-SDG-1 (EC50 = 275.24 ± 13.15 μM). These values are significantly lower than those of ascorbic acid (EC50 = 1129.32 ± 88.79 μM) and α-tocopherol (EC50 = 944.62 ± 148.00 μM). Compounds (S,S)-SDG-1 and (R,R)-SDG-2 also demonstrated powerful scavenging activities against hydroxyl [natural (S,S)-SDG-1: 3.68 ± 0.27; synthetic (S,S)-SDG-1: 2.09 ± 0.16; synthetic (R,R)-SDG-2: 1.96 ± 0.27], peroxyl [natural (S,S)-SDG-1: 2.55 ± 0.11; synthetic (S,S)-SDG-1: 2.20 ± 0.10; synthetic (R,R)-SDG-2: 3.03 ± 0.04] and DPPH [natural (S,S)-SDG-1: EC50 = 83.94 ± 2.80 μM; synthetic (S,S)-SDG-1: EC50 = 157.54 ± 21.30 μM; synthetic (R,R)-SDG-2: EC50 = 123.63 ± 8.67 μM] radicals. These results confirm previous studies with naturally occurring (S,S)-SDG-1 and establish both (S,S)-SDG-1 and (R,R)-SDG-2 as potent antioxidants and free radical scavengers for potential in vivo use.