A simple and portable vacuum assisted headspace solid phase microextraction device coupled to gas chromatography based on covalent organic framework/metal organic framework hybrid for simultaneous analysis of volatile and semi-volatile compounds in s
S. Maleki, P. Hashemi, M. Adeli – 2023
Various microextraction methods have demonstrated a positive effect when assisted by vacuum. However, working with such systems is often laborious, they often require expensive and non-portable vacuum pumps, and may even suck off some sample vapor or solid particles during the evacuation process. To address these issues, a simple, and affordable vacuum-assisted headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) device was developed in this study. The device, named In Syringe Vacuum-assisted HS-SPME (ISV-HS-SPME), utilizes an adjustable 40 mL glass syringe as a vacuum provider and sampling vessel. A new fiber coating, made from a hybrid of covalent triazine-based frameworks and metal-organic frameworks (COF/MOF), was prepared and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller techniques for use in the ISV-HS-SPME. By optimizing parameters such as extraction temperature, extraction time, desorption temperature, desorption time, and, humidity using a simplex method, the ISV system was found to increase the extraction efficiency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in solid samples by up to 175%. The determinations were followed by GC-FID measurements. Compared to three commercially available fibers, the ISV-HS-SPME device with the COF/MOF (2DTP/MIL-101-Cr) fiber exhibited significantly higher peak areas for PAHs and BTEX. The linear dynamic ranges for BTEX and PAHs were 7.1–9000 ng g−1 and 0.23–9000 ng g−1, respectively, with limits of detection ranging from 2.1–5 ng g−1 for BTEX and 0.07–1.6 ng g−1 for PAHs. The relative standard deviation of the method was 2.6–7.8% for BTEX and 1.6–6.7% for PAHs. The ISV-HS-SPME was successfully used to simultaneously determine PAHs and BTEX in polluted soil samples with recoveries ranging from 80.4 to 108%.