Non-spherical metal-based nanoarchitectures: Synthesis and impact of size, shape and composition on their biological activity
E. Nazarzadeh Zare, X. Zheng, P. Makvandi*, H. Gheybi, R. Sartorius, C. K. Y. Yiu, M. Adeli, A. Wu, A. Zarrabi*, R. S. Varma, F. R. Tay* – 2021
Metal-based nanoentities, apart from being indispensable research tools, have found extensive use in the industrial and biomedical arena. Because their biological impacts are governed by factors such as size, shape, and composition, such issues must be taken into account when these materials are incorporated into multi-component ensembles for clinical applications. The size and shape (rods, wires, sheets, tubes, and cages) of metallic nanostructures influence cell viability by virtue of their varied geometry and physicochemical interactions with mammalian cell membranes. The anisotropic properties of nonspherical metal-based nanoarchitectures render them exciting candidates for biomedical applications. Here, the size-, shape-, and composition-dependent properties of nonspherical metal-based nanoarchitectures are reviewed in the context of their potential applications in cancer diagnostics and therapeutics, as well as, in regenerative medicine. Strategies for the synthesis of nonspherical metal-based nanoarchitectures and their cytotoxicity and immunological profiles are also comprehensively appraised.