The study site is situated in and around West Shezaf Nature Reserve in the stunning and austere Arava valley (also called Wadi Arabah), about 30 km south of the Dead Sea in Israel. The population of Arabian babblers is subject of extensive observation and research since 1971 by Amotz Zahavi, Roni Ostreiher and their co-workers . The majority of birds are individually colour-banded and mostly habituated to the presence of human observers. Their individual history data over many years or even lifetime are available for many birds of the population. The field site offers comfortable working conditions and the people of the Hazeva field study center are very supportive.