Ascorbate peroxidase postcold regulation of chloroplast NADPH dehydrogenase activity controls cold memory
Seiml-Buchinger V, Reifschneider E, Bittner A, Baier M – 2022
Exposure of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to 4 °C imprints a cold memory that modulates gene expression in response to a second (triggering) stress stimulus applied several days later. Comparison of plastid transcriptomes of cold-primed and control plants directly before they were exposed to the triggering stimulus showed downregulation of several subunits of chloroplast NADPH dehydrogenase (NDH) and regulatory subunits of ATP synthase. NDH is, like proton gradient 5 (PGR5)–PGR5-like1 (PGRL1), a thylakoid-embedded, ferredoxin-dependent plastoquinone reductase that protects photosystem I and stabilizes ATP synthesis by cyclic electron transport (CET). Like PGRL1A and PGRL1B transcript levels, ndhA and ndhD transcript levels decreased during the 24-h long priming cold treatment. PGRL1 transcript levels were quickly reset in the postcold phase, but expression of ndhA remained low. The transcript abundances of other ndh genes decreased within the next days. Comparison of thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase (tAPX)-free and transiently tAPX-overexpressing or tAPX-downregulating Arabidopsis lines demonstrated that ndh expression is suppressed by postcold induction of tAPX. Four days after cold priming, when tAPX protein accumulation was maximal, NDH activity was almost fully lost. Lack of the NdhH-folding chaperonin Crr27 (Cpn60b4), but not lack of the NDH activity modulating subunits NdhM, NdhO, or photosynthetic NDH subcomplex B2 (PnsB2), strengthened priming regulation of zinc finger of A. thaliana 10, which is a nuclear-localized target gene of the tAPX-dependent cold-priming pathway. We conclude that cold-priming modifies chloroplast-to-nucleus stress signaling by tAPX-mediated suppression of NDH-dependent CET and that plastid-encoded NdhH, which controls subcomplex A assembly, is of special importance for memory stabilization.