Membrane protein turnover and degradation are required for the function and health of all cells. Neurons may live for the entire lifetime of an organism and are highly polarized cells with spatially segregated axonal and dendritic compartments. Both longevity and morphological complexity represent challenges for regulated membrane protein degradation. To investigate how neurons cope with these challenges, an increasing number of recent studies investigated local, cargo-specific protein sorting, and degradation at axon terminals and in dendritic processes. In this review, we explore the current answers to the ensuing questions of where, what, and when membrane proteins are degraded in neurons.