24 h exposure to 4 °C primes Arabidopsis thaliana in the pre-bolting rosette stage for several days against full cold activation of the ROS responsive genes ZAT10 and BAP1 and causes stronger coldinduction of pleiotropically stress-regulated genes. Transient over-expression of thylakoid ascorbate peroxidase (tAPX) at 20 °C mimicked and tAPX transcript silencing antagonized cold-priming of ZAT10 expression. The tAPX effect could not be replaced by over-expression of stromal ascorbate peroxidase (sAPX) demonstrating that priming is specific to regulation of tAPX availability and, consequently, regulated locally at the thylakoid membrane. Arabidopsis acquired cold primability in the early rosette stage between 2 and 4 weeks. During further rosette development, primability was widely maintained in the oldest leaves. Later formed and later maturing leaves were not primable demonstrating that priming is stronger regulated with plant age than with leaf age. In 4-week-old plants, which were strongest primable, the memory was fully erasable and lost seven days after priming. In summary, we conclude that cold-priming of chloroplast-to-nucleus ROS signalling by transient post-stress induction of tAPX transcription is a strategy to modify cell signalling for some time without affecting the alertness for activation of cold acclimation responses.