Ökologie der Pflanzen
Universität Kaiserslautern (Germany) and University of Edinburgh (Scotland); 1989-1992. Funded by Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes (German National Academic Foundation) and DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service).
Ph.D. (Ecology), 1993-1997, University of California Davis/ San Diego State University; advisor: Dr. Michael F. Allen (now at UC Riverside, Center for Conservation Biology)
Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Plant Biology, Stanford (California), 1998-1999; advisor: Dr. Christopher B. Field (now at the Department of Global Ecology)