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Recent Publications 2003-2017

For complete publication lists please refer to the individual authors, see 'Team'


Schatton A, Scharff C (2016) Next stop: Language. The ‘FOXP2’ gene’s journey through time. MÈTODE Science Studies Journal (2016). University of Valencia; DOI: 10.7203/metode.7.7248
Janney E, Taylor H, Scharff C, Rothenberg D, Parra LC, Tchernichovski O (2016) Temporal regularity increases with repertoire complexity in the Australian pied butcherbird's song. Royal Society open science; DOI: 10.1098/rsos.160357
Norton P, Scharff C (2016) “Bird Song Metronomics”: Isochronous Organization of Zebra Finch Song Rhythm. Front. Neurosci., 06 July 2016 | doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2016.00309
Voigt-Heucke S, Zimmer S, Kipper S (2016) Does Interspecific Eavesdropping Promote Aerial Aggregations in European Pipistrelle Bats During Autumn? Ethology 07/2016; DOI:10.1111/eth.12519
Vicario A, Mendoza E, Abellan A, Scharff C, Medina L (2016) Genoarchitecture of the extended amygdala in zebra finch, and expression of FoxP2 in cell corridors of different genetic profile. Brain Struct Funct, 2016 May 9 [Epub ahead of print], DOI 10.1007/s00429-016-1229-6
Adam I, Mendoza E, Kobalz U, Wohlgemuth S, Scharff C (2016) FoxP2 directly regulates the reelin receptor VLDLR developmentally and by singing. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience (2016), (in press, accepted manuscript), doi: 10.1016/j.mcn.2016.04.002
Ullrich R, Norton P, Scharff C (2016) Waltzing Taeniopygia: integration of courtship song and dance in the Australian zebra finch. (pdf-download, 1784 KBAnimal Behaviour 112 (2016) pp. 285-300, DOI information: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2015.11.012
Bartsch C, Weiss M & Kipper S (2015) Multiple song features are related to paternal effort in Common nightingales. (pdf-download, 650 KB) BMC Evolutionary Biology 15: 115,DOI 10.1186/s12862-015-0390-5
Bartsch C, Hultsch H, Scharff C & Kipper S (2015) What is the whistle all about? A study on whistle songs, related male characteristics, and female song preferences in common nightingales. (pdf-download, 737 KB) Journal of Ornithology, DOI 10.1007/s10336-015-1245-y
Honarmand M, Thompson CK, Schatton A, Kipper S, Scharff C (2015) Early developmental stress negatively affects neuronal recruitment to avian song system nucleus HVC.Developmental Neurobiology, Vol 76 Issue 1: 107-118, DOI: 10.1002/dneu.22302
Wiggins GA, Tyack P, Scharff C, Rohrmeier M (2015) The evolutionary roots of creativity: mechanisms and motivations. (pdf-download, 337 KB) The Royal Society Publishing DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2014.0099
Rohrmeier M, Zuidema W, Wiggins GA, Scharff C (2015) Principles of structure building in music, language and animal song. (pdf-download, 676 KB) The Royal Society Publishing DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2014.0097
Tokarev K, Boender AJ, Claßen GAE, Scharff C (2015) Young, active and well-connected: adult-born neurons in the zebra finch are activated during singing. Brain Structure and Function, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015, doi:10.1007/s00429-015-1006-y
Mendoza E, Tokarev K, Düring DN, Camarillo Retamosa E, Weiss M, Nshdejan A, Scharff C (2015) Differential Co-expression of FoxP1, FoxP2 and FoxP4 in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) song system. J Comp Neurol. doi: 10.1002/cne.23731
Roeske TC, Scharff C, Olson CR, Nshdejan A, Mello CV (2014) Long-Distance Retinoid Signaling in the Zebra Finch Brain. PLoS ONE 9(11): e111722.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111722
Kipper S, Kiefer S, Bartsch C, Weiss M (2014) Female calling? Song responses to conspecific call playbacks in nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos). Animal Behaviour. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2014.11.011
Kubikova L, Bosikova E, Cvikova M, Lukacova K, Scharff C & Jarvis ED (2014) Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS | 4 : 6590 | DOI: 10.1038/srep06590
Kiefer S, Scharff C, Hultsch H, Kipper S (2014) Learn it now, sing it later? Field and laboratory studies on song repertoire acquisition and song use in nightingales. Naturwissenschaften September 2014,  doi:10.1007/s00114-014-1236-5
Mendoza E, Colomb J, Rybak J, Pflüger HJ, Zars T, Scharff C, Brembs B (2014) Drosophila FoxP Mutants Are Deficient in Operant Self-Learning. PLoS ONE 9(6): e100648. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100648
Wohlgemuth S, Adam I, Scharff C (2014) FoxP2 in songbirds. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 2014, 28:86-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.conb.2014.06.009  >pdf-download
Brendler C, Kipper S, Schrader L (2014) Vigilance and roosting behaviour of laying hens on different perch heights. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 157 (2014) 93-99. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2014.06.004
Philipp Olias, Iris Adam, Anne Meyer, Constance Scharff, Achim D. Gruber (2014) Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Multiple Avian Species. PLoS One. 9(6):e99678. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0099678.
Weiss M, Hultsch H, Adam I, Scharff C, Kipper S (2014) The use of network analysis to study complex animal communication systems: A study on nightingale song. Proceedings of the  Royal Society B. 20140460; doi:10.1098/rspb.2014.0460
Bartsch C, Wenchel R, Kaiser A, Kipper S (2014) Singing onstage: Female and male Common nightingales eavesdrop on song type matching. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. DOI 10.1007/s00265-014-1727-6
Adam I, Scharff C, Honarmand M (2014) Who is Who? Non-invasive Methods to Individually Sex and Mark Altricial Chicks. J. Vis. Exp. (87), e51429, doi:10.3791/51429         >>> VIDEO
Bessert-Nettelbeck M, Kipper S, Bartsch C, Voigt-Heucke S L (2014) Similar, yet different: male Reed Buntings (Emberiza schoeniclus) show high individual differences in song composition, rates of syllable sharing and use. Journal of Ornithology: doi: 10.1007/s10336-014-1052-x
Murugan M, Harward S, Scharff C, Mooney R (2013) Diminished FoxP2 Levels Affect Dopaminergic Modulation of Corticostriatal Signaling Important to Song Variability. Neuron2013 Dec 18;80(6):1464-76. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2013.09.021. Epub 2013 Nov 21
Dechmann, DKN., Wikelski, M, van Nordwijk, HJ, Voigt, CC, Voigt-Heucke, SL (2013) Metabolic costs of bat echolocation in a non-foraging context support a role in communication. Frontiers in Integrative Physiology 4: article 66.
Vokurkova J, Petruskova T, Reifova R, Kozman A, Morkovsky L, Kipper S, Weiss M, Reif J, Dolata P T, Petrusek A (2013) The causes and evolutionary consequences of miexed singing in two hybridizing songbird species (Luscinia spp.) PLoS ONE 8(4): e60172. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060172
Apfelbeck B, Mortega K, Kiefer S, Kipper S, Vellema M, Villavicencio C, Gahr M, Goymann W (2013) Associated and disassociated changes in hormones, song, behavior and brain receptor expression between life-cycle stages in male black redstarts, Phoenicurus ochruros. General and Comparative Endocrinology 184: 93-102.
Thompson CK, Schwabe F, Schoof A, Mendoza E, Gampe J, Rochefort C, Scharff C (2013) Young and intense: FoxP2 immunoreactivity in Area X varies with age, song stereotypy, and singing in male zebra finches. Front Neural Circuits. 2013; 7:24. doi: 10.3389/fncir.2013.00024. Epub 2013 Feb 28.
Friederici AD, Petrides M, Scharff C (2013) Neurobiology of human language and its evolution: Primate and Nonprimate Perspectives. Edited by: Ralph L Holloway. Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience 2013, Vol. 5, Art. 1, doi: 10.3389/fnevo.2013.00001
Garcia-Calero E, Scharff C (2013) Calbindin expression in developing striatum of zebra finches and its relation to the formation of Area X. J Comp Neurol. 2013 Feb 1;521(2):326-41. doi: 10.1002/cne.23174
Düring DN, Ziegler A, Thompson CK, Ziegler A, Faber C, Müller J, Scharff C, Elemans CPH (2013) The songbird syrinx morphome: a three-dimensional, high-resolution, interactive morphological map of the zebra finch vocal organ. BMC Biology 2013, 11:1, doi:10.1186/1741-7007-11-1
Scharff C, Adam I (2013) Neurogenetics of birdsong. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 2012, 23:1-8 dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2012.10.001
Thompson CK, Scharff C (2013) A Bird’s-Eye View of FoxP2. In: Birdsong, Speech, and Language (Bolhuis JJ, Everaert M, ed), pp455-470. The MIT Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England.
Langus A, Petri J, Nespor M, Scharff C (2013) FoxP2 and deep homology in the evolution of birdsong and human language. (pdf download) In: Evolutionary Emergence of Language (Botha R, Everaert M, ed.), Oxford 2013, p.223-243
Christian C. Voigt, Ivailo M. Borissovand Silke L. Voigt-Heucke (2012). Terrestrial locomotion imposes high metabolic requirements on bats. Journal of Experimental Biology doi: 10.1242/jeb.076224
Apfelbeck B, Kiefer S, Mortega K, Goymann W & Kipper S (2012) Testosterone affects song modulation during simulated territorial intrusions in male black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros).  PLoS ONE 7(12): e52009. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052009.
Weiss M, Kiefer S, Kipper S (2012) Buzzwords in Females’ Ears? The Use of Buzz Songs in the Communication of Nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos). PLoS ONE 7(9): e45057. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045057
Clemens J, Wohlgemuth S, Ronacher B (2012) Nonlinear computations underlying temporal and population sparseness in the auditory system of the grasshopper. J Neurosci. 2012 Jul 18;32(29):10053-62
Bartsch C, Weiss M & Kipper S (2012). The return of the intruder: long-term effects of playbacks from different distances in a territorial songbird. Ethology 118: 876-884.
Christian C. Voigt, Silke L. Voigt-Heucke & Antje S. Kretzschmar (2012). Isotopic evidence for seed transfer from successional areas into forests by short-tailed fruit bats (Carollia spp.; Phyllostomidae). Journal of Tropical Ecology (2012) 28:181–186
Krause ET, Honarmand M and Naguib M (2011) Zebra finch nestlings beg more under better nutritional conditions. Behaviour 148: 1239–1255.
Ofri Mann, Vika Liebermann, Angela Köhler, Carmi Korine, Helen E. Hedworth & Silke L. Voigt-Heucke (2011). Finding your friends at densely populated roosting places: male Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics. Acta Chiropterologica 13(2): 411–417
Christian C. Voigt , Silke L. Voigt-Heucke & Karin Schneeberger (2011). Isotopic Data Do Not Support Food Sharing Within Large Networks of Female Vampire Bats (Desmodus rotundus).  Ethology 117: 1–9
Clemens J, Kutzki O, Ronacher B, Schreiber S, Wohlgemuth S (2011) Efficient transformation of an auditory population code in a small sensory system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Aug 16;108(33):13812-7
Kiefer S, Scharff C, Kipper, S (2011) Does age matter in song bird vocal interactions? Results from interactive playback experiments. Frontiers in Zoology 8:29. doi:10.1186/1742-9994-8-29
Petri J and Scharff C (2011) Evo-devo, deep homology and FoxP2: implications for the evolution of speech and language Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B (2011) 00, 1-17 doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0001
Tokarev K, Tiunova A, Scharff C, Anokhin K (2011) Food for Song: Expression of C-Fos and ZENK in the Zebra Finch Song Nuclei during Food Aversion Learning. PLoS ONE 6(6): e21157. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021157
Voigt CC, Schneeberger K, Voigt-Heucke SL & Lewanzik D (2011) (in press): Rain increases the energy cost of bat flight. Biology Letters, doi:10.1098/rsbl.2011.0313
Siemers BM, Greif S, Borissov I, Voigt-Heucke SL, Voigt CC (in press) Divergent trophic levels in two cryptic sibling bat species. Oecologia, doi 10.1007/s00442-011-1940-1, in press
Fernald RD, Scharff C (2010) Neurobiology of behavior. Curr Opin Neurobiol 2010 Dec 20(6): 746-7. Epub 2010 Nov 9. PMID: 21071204 [PubMed - in process] (pdf-download 82 KB)
Honarmand M, Goymann W and Naguib M (2010) Stressful Dieting: Nutritional Conditions but Not Compensatory Growth Elevate Corticosterone Levels in Zebra Finch Nestlings and Fledglings. PLoS ONE, 5 (9), art. no. e12930.
Wohlgemuth S, Vogel A, Ronacher B (2010) Encoding of amplitude modulations by auditory neurons of the locust: influence of modulation frequency, rise time, and modulation depth. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol, 2010 Sep 24. [Epub ahead of print]
Bolhuis JJ, Okanoya K, Scharff C (2010) Twitter evolution: converging mechanisms in birdsong and human speech. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2010 Nov 11(11):747-759 (pdf-download 468 KB)
Fee MS and Scharff C (2010) The Songbird as a Model for the Generation and Learning of Complex Sequential Behaviors. ILAR Journal, Vol. 51, No. 4, 362-377 (pdf-download 3 MB)
Schulz SB, Haesler S, Scharff C, Rochefort C (2010) Knockdown of FoxP2 alters spine density in Area X of the zebra finch. Genes, Brain & Behavior, Vol. 9, Issue 7, 732-740
Searcy W A, Peters S, Kipper S & Nowicki S (2010)  Female Sparrows Use Song to Assess Male Developmental History. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 64: 1343-1349.
Kiefer S, Sommer C, Scharff C and Kipper S (2010) Singing the Popular Songs? Nightingales Share More Song Types with Their Breeding Population in Their Second Season than in Their First. Ethology 116: 619-626 (pdf-download  224 KB)
Warren WC, Clayton DF, Ellegren H, Arnold AP, Hillier LW, Künstner A, Searle S, White S, Vilella AJ, Fairley S, Heger A, Kong L, Ponting CP, Jarvis ED, Mello CV, Minx P, Lovell P, Velho TAF, Ferris M, Balakrishnan CN, Sinha S, Blatti C, London SE, Li Y, Lin YC, George J, Sweedler J, Southey B, Gunaratne P, Watson M, Nam K, Backström N, Smeds L, Nabholz B, Itoh Y, Whitney O, Pfenning AR, Howard J, Völker M, Skinner BM, Griffin DK, Ye L, McLaren WM, Flicek P, Quesada V, Velasco G, Lopez-Otin C, Puente XS, Olender T, Lancet D, Smit AFA, Hubley R, Konkel MK, Walker JA, Batzer MA, Gu W, Pollock DD, Chen L, Cheng Z, Eichler EE, Stapley J, Slate J, Ekblom R, Birkhead T, Burke T, Burt D, Scharff C, Adam I, Richard H, Sultan M, Soldatov A, Lehrach H, Edwards SV, Yang SP, Li XC, Graves T, Fulton L, Nelson J, Chinwalla A, Hou S, Mardis ER & Wilson RK. (2010) The genome of a songbird.
Nature 464, 757-762 (1 April 2010) |doi:10.1038/nature08819
Creutzig F, Benda J, Wohlgemuth S, Stumpner A, Ronacher B and Herz, AVM (2010) Timescale-invariant Pattern Recognition by Feedforward Inhibition and Parallel Signal Processing. Neural Comp, Feb. 8 online
Scharff C (2010) Schubert, Schumann, Singdrossel und Sprosser: Ein Instinkt für Lieder. In: 'Oktobermusikfest 2009: Himmelsklänge - Vogelgesänge; Vogelstimmen in Musik und Naturwissenschaft'. Herausg.: Johanna Pöllath i. A. der Max-Planck-Förderstiftung. 33-37
Krauß S, So J, Hambrock M, Köhler A, Kunath M, Scharff C, Wessling M, Grzeschik KH, Schneider R, Schweiger S (2009) Point Mutations in GLI3 Lead to Misregulation of its Subcellular Localization. PLOS ONE published 15 Oct 2009 | doi:10.1371/journal.pone.000747
Fisher SE and Scharff C (2009) FOXP2 as a molecular window into speech and language. (pdf-download 1 MB) Trends Genet. 2009 Apr;25(4):166-77. Epub 2009 Mar 21. Review.
Creutzig F*, Wohlgemuth S*, Stumpner A, Benda J, Ronacher B and Herz, AVM (2009) Timescale-invariant representation of acoustic communication signals by a bursting neuron. J Neurosci, 29(8): 2575-80. *these authors contributed equally to this work.
Dechmann, DKN, Heucke, SL et al. (2009) Experimental evidence for group hunting via eavesdropping in echolating bats. Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences 276: 2721-2729
Garcia-Calero E & Puelles L (2009) Enc 1 expression in the chick telencephalon at intermediate and late stages of development. J. Comp. Neurol. Dec 10; 517 (5):564-80
Jacob J, Storm R et al. (2009) Insm 1 (IA-1) is an essential component to the regulatory network that specifies monoaminergic neuronal phenotypes in the vertebrate hindbrain. Development 136, 2477-2485
Krause ET, Honarmand M, Wetzel J and Naguib M (2009) Early fasting is long lasting: Differences in early nutritional conditions reappear under stressful conditions in adult female zebra finches. PLoS ONE 4(3): e5015.doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005015
Meitzen J, Thompson CK et al. (2009) Time course of chanages in Gambel's white-crowned sparrow song behavior following transitions. Horm. Behav. Jan:55 (1), 217-27
Range F, Heucke SL et al. (2009) The effect of ostensive cues on dog's performance in a manipulative social learning task. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 120: 170-178
Storm R et al. (2009) The bHLH transcription factor Olig3 marks the dorsal neuroepithelium of the hindbrain and is essential for the development of brainstem nuclei. Development 136, 295-305
Thompson CK & Brenowitz EA (2009) Neurogenesis in an adult avian song nucleus is reduced by decreasing caspase-mediated apoptosis. J. of Neuroscience, April 8, 4586-4591
Kiefer S, Sommer C, Scharff C, Kipper S and Mundry R (2009) Tuning towards tomorrow? Common nightingales Luscinia megarhynchos change and increase their song repertoires from the first to the second breeding season. J. Avian Biol. 40: 231-236 (pdf-download 119 KB)
Ronacher B, Wohlgemuth S, Vogel A, & Krahe R (2008) Discrimination of acoustic communication signals by grasshoppers: temporal resolution, temporal integration, and the impact of intrinsic noise. J of Comp Psychol, 122, 3, 252-63
Neuhofer D, Wohlgemuth S, Stumpner S, & Ronacher B (2008) Evolutionarily conserved coding properties of auditory neurons across grasshopper species. Poc R Soc B, 275, 1646: 1965-74
Wohlgemuth S, Ronacher B (2007) Auditory discrimination of amplitude modulations based on metric distances of spike trains. J Neurophysiol 97: 3082-3092
Haesler S, Rochefort C, Georgi B, Licznerski P, Osten P, Scharff C (2007) Incomplete and Inaccurate Vocal Imitation after Knockdown of FoxP2 in Songbird Basal Ganglia Nucleus Area X. (pdf-download 2 MB) PLoS Biology 5 (12): e321
Haesler S. and Scharff, C. (2007) Genes for tuning up the vocal brain: FoxP2 in human speech and birdsong. In press: Neurobiology of Birdsong, Cambridge University Press, eds Peter Marler andd Phil Zeigler.
Mundry R and Sommer C (2007) Ein neues Gefiedermerkmal zur Altersbestimmung bei Nachtigallen (Luscinia megarhynchos) - A new pattern of feather colouration for age determination in Common nightingales. Limicola, in press.
Mundry R and Sommer C (2007) Discriminant function analysis with non-independent data: consequences and an alternative. Animal Behaviour, in press.
Scotto-Lomassese S, Rochefort C, Nshdejan A, Scharff C (2007) HVC interneurons are not renewed in adult male zebra finches. European Journal of Neuroscience 25: 1663-1668. (pdf-download 1 MB)
Rochefort C, He X, Scotto-Lomassese S, Scharff C (2007) Recruitment of FoxP2-expressing neurons to Area X varies during song development. Developmental Neurobiol 67(6): 809-81 7. (pdf-download 544 kB)
Kiefer, S., Spiess, A., Kipper, S., Mundry, R., Sommer, C., Hultsch, H. & Todt, D. (2006) First year common nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos) have smaller repertoire sizes than older males. Ethology 112, 1217-1224. (pdf-download 539 kB)
Kiefer, S. and Hultsch, H. (2006) Age related increase of song type repertoires in Common nightingales Luscinia megarhynchos. J. Ornithol. 147 suppl. (2006), p. 96.
Haesler S (2006) Also sprach der Zebrafink. Gehirn und Geist 12 (2006): 52-57. (pdf-download 168 kB)
White SA, Fisher SE, Geschwind DH, Scharff C, Holy TE (2006) Singing mice, songbirds, and more: models for FOXP2 function and dysfunction in human speech and language. J. Neurosci. 26 (41): 10376-9.
Wada K, Howard JT, McConnell P, Whitney O, Lints T, Rivas MR, Horita H, Patterson M, White SA, Scharff C, Haesler S, Zhao S, Sakaguchi H, Hagiwara M, Shiraki T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Skene P, Hayashizaki Y, Carninci P, Jarvis ED (2006) A molecular neuroethological approach for identifying and characterizing a cascade of behaviorally regulated genes. PNAS, 103 (41): 15212-15217.
Scharff C, Nitsch R (2006) Entwicklungsstörungen im Nervensystem . Neuroforum 4: 273-276. (pdf-download 211 kB)
Scharff C, Haesler S (2005) An evolutionary perspective on FoxP2: strictly for the birds? Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 15(6): 694-703. Epub 2005 Nov 2. (pdf-download 405 kB)
Gurok U, Steinhoff C, Lipkowitz B, Ropers HH, Scharff C, Nuber UA (2004) Gene expression changes in the course of neural progenitor cell differentiation. J Neurosci. 24(26): 5982-6002. (pdf-download 1,4 MB)
Scharff C and White SA (2004) Genetic components of vocal learning. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1016: 325-47. (pdf-download 6,3 MB)
Haesler S, Wada K, Nshdejan A, Morrise EE, Lints T, Jarvis ED, Scharff C (2004) FoxP2 expression in avian vocal learners and non-learners. J Neurosci. 31;24(13): 3164-3175. (pdf-download 1 MB)
Ronacher B, Franz A, Wohlgemuth S & Hennig RM (2004) Variability of spike trains and the processing of temporal patterns of acoustic signals - problems, constraints and solutions. J Comp Physiol A 190(4): 257-77
Kalscheuer VM, Freude K, Musante L, Jensen LR, Yntema HG, Gécz J, Sefiani A, Hoffmann K, Moser B, Haas S, Gurok U, Haesler S, Aranda B, Nshedjan A, Tzschach A, Hartmann N, Roloff TC, Shoichet S, Hagens O, Tao J, van Bokhoven H, Turner G, Chelly J, Moraine C, Fryns JP, Nuber U, Hoeltzenbein M, Scharff C, Scherthan H, Lenzner S, Hamel BCJ, Schweiger S & Ropers HH (2003) Mutations in the polyglutamine-binding protein 1 gene cause X-linked mental retardation. Nat Genet  35(4): 313-315. (pdf-download 460 kB)