Publications (original publications and reviews)


  • Stocker B, Zube C, Damrau C, Wolfenberg H, Colomb J, Sigrist S, Biserova N and Pflüger HJ. Morphology, peripheral distribution, immunocytochemistry, ultrastructure and functional aspects of tyraminergic/octopaminergic axon terminals in insects. Frontiers (in preparation).
  • Pflüger HJ. Motor pattern selection and initiation in invertebrates with an emphasis on insects. In: Motor control (eds. Hooper S and Büschges A), Chapter 7.3, Wiley (in press). 


  • Rillich J, Stevenson PA (2014) A fighter's comeback: dopamine is necessary for recovery of aggression after social defeat in crickets. Hormones and Behavior, 66:696-704.
  • Schubert M, Hansson BS, Sachse S (2014) The banana code - natural blend processing in the olfactory circuitry of Drosophila melanogaster. Frontiers Research Foundation 5: Article No. 59 (13 pages).


  • Mendoza E, Colomb J, Rybak J, Pflüger H-J, Zars T, Scharff C, Brembs B (2011) Drosophila FoxP is necessary for operant self-learning. PLoS One 9 (6):1-5, e100648


  • Pflüger H-J, Duch C. (2011) Dynamic neural control of muscle me tabolism related to motor behavior. Physiology 26:293-303
  • Pflüger, H-J, Field LH, Nishino H, Currie MJ. (2011) Neuromod ulatory unpaired median neurons in the New Zealand tree weta, Hemideina femorata . J Insect Physiol, 57:1420-1430


  • Lehmann GU, Berger S, Strauss J, Lehmann AW, Pflüger HJ. (2010) The auditory system of non-calling grasshoppers (Melanoplinae: Podismini) and the evolutionary regression of their tympanal ears. J Comp Physiol A 196:807-16
  • Mayer G, Whitington PM, Sunnucks P, Pflüger HJ. (2010) A revision of brain composition in Onychophora (velvet worms) suggests that the trit ocerebrum evolved in arthropods. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10:255
  • Verlinden H, Vleugels R, Marchal, E, Badisco, Pflüger, H -J, Blenau, W, Van den Broeck, J (2010) The role of octopamine in locusts and other inse cts. J Insect Physiol 56:854-867
  • Verlinden H, Vleugels R, Marchal, E, Badisco, L, Tobback, J, Pflüger, H-J, Blenau, W, Van den Broeck, J (2010) The cloning, phylogenetic relationship an d distribution pattern of two new putative GPCR-type octopamine receptors in the desert locust ( Schistocerca gregaria ). J Insect Physiol 56:868–875
  • Münch D, Ott SR, Pflüger HJ (2010) The three dimensional di stribution of NO sources in a primary mechanosensory integration centre in the Locust. J Comp Neurol 518:2903-2916 2
  • Vierk R, Duch C, Pflüger HJ (2010) Postembryonic development of the centrally generated flight pattern in the tobacco hawkmoth, Manduca sexta ., J. Comp. Physiol A 196:37-50


  • Kononenko, N. L., Wolfenberg, H., Pflüger, H.-J. (2009) Tyramine as an independent transmitter and a precursor of octopamine in the locust cent ral nervous system: An immunocytochemical study. J. Comp. Neurol. 512:433-452
  • Cholewa, J. & Pflüger, H.-J. (2009) Descending unpaired median neurons with bilaterally symmetrical axons in the suboesophageal ganglion of Mandu ca sexta larvae. Zoology 112:251-262
  • Vierk R, Pflüger HJ, Duch C. (2009) Differential effects of octopamine and tyramine on the central pattern generator for Manduca flight. J Comp Physiol A (2009) 195:265–277
  • 2008
  • Mentel, T, Weiler, V, Büschges, A., Pflüger, H-J. (2008) Ac tivity of neuromodulatory neurons during stepping of a single insect leg. J. Insect P hysiol. 54: 51-61, (electronic publication doi:10.1016/j.jinsphys.2007.08.010
  • Field, L. H., Duch, C. & Pflüger, H.-J. (2008) Responses of octopaminergic thoracic unpaired median neurons in the locust to visual and mechanose nsory signals. J. Insect Physiol. 54: 240-254, (electronic publication doi:10.1016/j.jinsphys.2007.09.006 )


  • Ryglewski, S.; Pflüger, H.-J. & Duch, C. (2007) Expanding the Neuron's Calcium Signaling Repertoire: Intracellular Calcium Release via Voltage induced PLC and IP3R Activation. PLoS Biology 5(4): 818 - 827
  • Kononenko, N.L. & Pflüger, H.-J. (2007) Dendritic projections of different types of octopaminergic unpaired median neurons in the locust metathor acic ganglion. Cell Tissue Res. 330:179-195 (electronic publication 15-05-2007, DOI 10.1007/s00441-007- 0425-3)
  • Brembs, B., Christiansen, F., Pflüger, H.-J. & Duch, C . (2007) Flight motor performance deficits in flies with genetically altered biogenic amine levels. J. Neurosci. 27 (41):11122- 11131
  • Büschges A, Pflüger, H-J (2007) Generating rhythmic movement: F rom microcircuits to complex motor programs. Introductory remarks to Symposium 10, 2007, 7 th Göttingen Meeting of the German Neuroscience Society, Supplement to Neuroforum, Feb 2007 (1), vol. 13, 3
  • Pflüger, H.-J. (2007) Der Flug der Insekten. Woher kommt die Energie und wie wird er kontrolliert? Fundiert, Heft 1, 2007, pp 50-55 (Science magazine of the Freie Universität Berlin) Pflüger, H.-J. (2007) Der Flug der Insekten: Wie Heuschreck en ihre Energiezufuhr steuern. Supplement of FU in „Der Tagsspiegel“, 21 June 2007, p. B3


  • Rosenberg, L. A.; Pflüger, H.-J.; Wegener, G. & Libersat, F. (2006) Wasp venom injected into the prey’s brain modulates thoracic identifi ed bioaminergic neurons. J. Neurobiol. 66(2):155-168
  • Heidel; E. & Pflüger, H.-J. (2006) Differential ion current expression in identified subtypes of locust octopaminergic dorsal unpaired median (DUM- ) neurons. European J. Neuroscience 23: 1189-1206
  • Skiebe, P., Biserova, N.M., Vedenina, V., Börner, J.& Pfl üger, H.-J. (2006) Allatostatin- like immunoreactivity in the abdomen of the locust Schistoce rca gregaria. Cell Tissue Res. 325: 163-174 (first electronic publication 14 March, 2006)
  • Bullerjahn, A., Mentel, T., Pflüger, H.-J. & Stevenson, P. A. (2006) Nitric oxide: a peripheral neuromodulator in the locust influencing heart-r hythm. Cell Tissue Res. 325:345-360 (first electronic publication, 28 March, 2006)
  • Pflüger, H.-J. & Büschges, A. (2006) Neuromodulation of microcir cuits in motor systems of invertebrates. In: S. Grillner and A. Graybiel (eds.) Microcircuits: the interface between neurons and global brain function. 2006. Dahlem Workshop R eport 93. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press
  • Kiehn, O., Büschges, A., Duch, C., Grillner, S., Isa, T., Lansner, A., Pflüger, H-J., Richter, D. W., Sillar, K. T., Smith, J. and Sparks, D. L. (2006) Neuromodulation of Microcircuits in Motor Systems. In: S. Grillner and A. G raybiel (eds.) Microcircuits: the interface between neurons and global brain function. 2006. Dahle m Workshop Report 93. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press
  • Pflüger, H.-J. (2006) Von den Neurowissenschaften erziehen l ernen? Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft 9 (Beiheft 5): 43–49
  • Pflüger, H.-J. (2006) Frischfleisch für den Nachwuchs. Geh irnwäsche bei Insekten: Wie räuberische Wespen das Verhalten ihrer Beute manipuliere n. Der Tagesspiegel, Nr. 19, 358, 1.11.2006, p. 24


  • Pflüger, H.- J. & Stevenson, P. A. (2005) Evolutionary aspects of octopaminergic systems with emphasis on arthropods. Arthropod Structure and Developm ent 34: 379-39


  • Biserova, N. M. & Pflüger, H.-J.(2004) The ultrastructure of l ocust pleuroaxillary “steering” muscles in comparison to other skeletal muscles. Zoology 107: 229-242
  • Libersat, F. & Pflüger, H.-J. (2004) Monoamines and the orchest ration of behavior. BioScience 54 (1): 17 - 25
  • Pflüger, H.-J.; Duch, C.; Heidel, E. (2004) The Ernst Flor ey Memorial Lecture. Neuro- modulatory octopaminergic neurones and their functions during i nsect motor behaviour. Acta Biologica Hungarica 55 (1-4): 3-12
  • Pflüger, H.-J. and Steve Ayan (2004) Georg Büchner, Dramatiker un d Morphologe, Gehirn und Geist 3/2004, pp. 48-52
  • Pflüger, H.-J. (2004) Eine Chance für Europa, Neuroforum 2004


  • Mentel, T., Duch, C., Stypa, H., Müller, U., Wegener, G . & Pflüger, H.-J. (2003) Central modulatory neurons control fuel selection in flight muscle of migratory locust. J. Neurosci. 23: 1109-1113
  • Bullerjahn, S. & Pflüger, H.-J. (2003) The distribution of p utative nitric oxide releasing neurones in the locust abdominal nervous system: a comparison of NADPHd histo- chemistry and NOS-immunocytochemistry. Zoology 106: 3-17
  • Nicht schön, aber alt: In: Geoskop, Geo 12/Dezember 2003, page 233
  • Obituary Werner Rathmayer, J. of Muscle Research and Cell Moti lity 24 (1), 1-2 (2003)
  • Nachruf Werner Rathmayer, Neuroforum 2003 and in 2003 Göttingen Neurob iology Conference program book


  • Pflüger, H.-J. (2002) Georg Büchner, Dramatiker und Morphologe, N euroForum 8 (2), 199-201


  • Gauglitz, S. & Pflüger, H.-J. (2001) Cholinergic transmission i n central synapses of the locust nervous system. J. Comp. Physiol. A 187: 825-836
  • Bräunig, P. & Pflüger, H. -J. (2001) The unpaired median neur ons of insects. Adv. Insect Physiol. 28: 185-266 5
  • Pflüger, H.-J. (2001) Was wir von kleinen Gehirnen lernen könn en. In: Kosmos Gehirn (eds. H. Kettenmann, M. Gibson), Neurowissenschaftliche Gesellschaft, Berlin 2001, p 14-15
  • Pflüger, H.-J. (2001) Book review (Lexikon der Neurowissenschaf t) in NeuroForum 7 (4), p. 143


  • Bucher, D. & Pflüger, H.-J. (2000) Directional sensitivity of an identified wind-sensitive interneuron during the postembryonic development of the locu st. J. Insect Physiol. 46: 1545-1556
  • Bucher, D.; Scholz, M.; Stetter, M.; Obermayer, K. & P flüger, H.-J. (2000) Correction methods for three-dimensional reconstructions from confocal i mages: I. Tissue shrinking and axial scaling. J. Neurosci. Methods 100: 135-143
  • Pflüger, H.-J. & Duch, C. (2000) The functional role of octopami nergic neurons in insect motor behavior. Acta Biologica Hungarica 51: 343-348
  • Pflüger, H.-J. (2000) Was wir dem Tintenfisch zu verdanken hab en, appeared on 11 October 2000 in „Neue Zürcher Zeitung“ (NZZ) Forschung und Te chnik, page 73


  • Duch, C.; Mentel, T. & Pflüger, H.-J. (1999) Distribution and activation of different types of octopaminergic DUM neurons in the locust. J. Comp. N eurol. 403, 119-134.
  • Johnston, R.M., Consoulas, C., Pflüger, H.J. & Levine, R.B. (1999) Patterned activation of unpaired median neurons during fictive crawling in Manduc a larvae. J. Exp. Biol. 202: 103-113.
  • Pflüger, H.-J. & Field, L.H.D. (1999) A thoracic chordotonal organ in locusts which codes for mechanical and acoustic stimuli. J. Comp. Physiol. A 184: 169-183.
  • Duch, C. & Pflüger, H.-J. (1999) DUM neurons in locust fligh t: a model system for amine mediated peripheral adjustments to the requirement s of a central motor program. J. Comp. Physiol. A 184: 489-499
  • Consoulas, C., Johnston, R.M., Pflüger, H.J. & Levine, R.B. (1999) Peripheral distri- bution of presynaptic release sites of abdominal motor and modul atory neurons in Manduca sexta larvae. J. Comp. Neurol. 410: 4-19.
  • Pflüger, H.-J. (1999) Neuromodulation during motor development and behavior. Current Opinion Neurobiol. 9: 683-689 6
  • Pflüger, H.-J. & Menzel, R. (1999) Neuroethology, its roots and f uture. J. Comp. Physiol. A 185: 189-392


  • Meuser, S. & Pflüger, H.-J. (1998) Programmed cell death spec ifically eliminates one part of a locust pleuroaxillary muscle after imaginal moult. J. E xp. Biol. 201, 2367-2382.


  • Pflüger, H.-J. (1997) Symposium: Neural networks and their ontoge netic changes. In: Neurobiology: From Membrane to Mind (eds. H. Waessle & N. Els ner), Proc. 25th Goettingen Neurobiology Meeting, vol. I, 309 - 312, Thieme, Stuttgart


  • Pflüger, H.-J. (1996) Standpunkt, NeuroForum 2 (4), 23-24


  • Pflüger, H.-J. & Watson, A.H.D. (1995) GABA- and glutamate-like immunoreactivity in central synapses of dorsal unpaired median neurones in the ab dominal nerve cord of locusts. Cell Tissue Res. 280, 325-333
  • Burrows, M. & Pflüger, H.-J. (1995) The action of locust neurom odulatory neurons is coupled to specific motor patterns. J. Neurophysiol. 74, 347-357
  • Duch, C. & Pflüger, H.-J. (1995) Motor patterns for horizontal an d upside walking and vertical climbing in the locust. J. exp. Biol. 198, 1963-1976
  • Pflüger, H.-J. (1995) Structural dynamic of sensory neurons and m uscles during the postembryonic development of locusts. Verh. Dtsch. Zool. Ges . 88.2, 119-127
  • Pflüger, H.-J. & Meuser S. (1995) Development of a mechanosensor y pathway in the locust. Acta Biologica Hungarica 46 (2-4), 481-483


  • Stevenson, P.A.; Pflüger, H.-J.; Eckert, M. & Rapus, J. ( 1994) Octopamine-like immunoreactive neurones in locust genital abdominal ganglia. Cell Tiss. Res. 275, 299- 308
  • Stevenson, P.A. & Pflüger, H.-J. (1994) Colocalization of octopamine and FMRFamide related peptide in identified heart projecting (DUM) ne urones in the locust revealed by immunocytochemistry. Brain Res. 638, 117-125 7
  • Watson, A.H.D. & Pflüger, H.-J. (1994) Distribution of input s ynapses from processes exhibiting GABA- and glutamate-like immunoreactivity onto term inals of prosternal filiform afferents in the locust. J. comp. Neurol. 343, 617-629
  • Pflüger, H.-J.; Hurdelbrink, S.; Czjzek, A. & Burrows, M. (1994) Activity dependent structural dynamics of insect sensory fibres. J. Neurosci. 14, 6946-6955


  • Pflüger, H.-J.; Witten, J.L. & Levine, R.B. (1993) Fate of abdom inal ventral unpaired median (VUM) cells during metamorphosis of the hawkmoth, Man duca sexta. J. Comp. Neurol. 335, 508-522


  • Ferber, M. & Pflüger, H.-J. (1992) An identified dorsal unp aired median neurone and bilaterally projecting neurones exhibiting bovine pancreatic p olypeptide/FMRFamide- like immunoreactivity in abdominal ganglia of the migratory locust. Cell Tissue Res. 267, 85-98
  • Stevenson, P.A.; Pflüger, H.-J.; Eckert, M. & Rapus, J. (1992) Octopamine immuno- reactive cell populations in locust ventral nerve cord. J. Comp . Neurol. 315, 382-397
  • Stevenson, P.A. & Pflüger, H.-J. (1992) Evidence for octopaminer gic nature of peripherally projecting DUM-cells, but not DUM-interneur ons in locusts. In: Symposia Biologica Hungarica 43, 189-199
  • Kalogianni, E. & Pflüger, H.-J.(1992) The Identification of motor and unpaired median neurones innervating the locust oviduct. J. Exp. Biol. 168, 177-198
  • Burrows, M. & Pflüger, H.-J. (1992) Output connections of a wi nd sensitive inter- neurone with motor neurones innervating flight steering musc les in the locust. J. Comp. Physiol A 171, 437-446


  • Ferber, M. & Pflüger, H.-J. (1990) Bilaterally projecting neur ones in pregenital abdominal ganglia of the locust: Anatomy and peripheral targets. J. Comp. Neurol. 302, 447-460
  • Pflüger, H.-J. & Burrows, M. (1990) Synaptic connections of dif ferent strength between windsensitive hairs and an identified projection interneu rone in the locust. Europ. J. Neurosci. 2, 1040-1050


  • Watson, A.H.D. & Pflüger, H.-J. (1989) Regional specialisation fue r synaptic input and output on a locust intersegmental interneurone with multip le spike initiating zones. J. Comp. Neurol. 279, 515-527
  • Field, L.H. & Pflüger, H.-J. (1989) The femoral chordotonal organ: A bifunctional orthopteran sense organ? Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 93A, 729-743 Book: Neural Mechanisms of Behavior. Proceedings of the 2nd Int ernational Congress of Neuroethology. (eds. J. Erber, R. Menzel, H.-J. Pflüger, D. Todt), Thieme, Stuttgart, 1989.
  • Pflüger, H.-J. (1989) Sensory control of local reflex-movements in locusts. In: Neuro- biology of Sensory Systems (eds. R. Naresh Singh & N. Strausfe ld), Plenum, New York, 1989, p. 555-566


  • Pflüger, H.-J. & Watson, A.H.D. (1988) The structure and dist ribution of Dorsal Unpaired Median (DUM) Neurones in the abdominal nerve cord of male and female locusts. J. Comp. Neurol. 268, 329-345
  • Pflüger, H.-J.; Bräunig, P. & Hustert, R. (1988) The organizati on of mechanosensory neuropiles in locust thoracic ganglia. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. L ondon B. 321, 1-26
  • Burrows, M. & Pflüger, H.-J. (1988) Positive feedback loops from proprioceptors involved in leg movements of the locust. J. Comp. Physiol. A 163, 425-440
  • Pflüger, H.-J. (1988) Wie laufen Tiere? Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Natur- forschender Freunde zu Berlin (Hrsg. P. Goetz), (N.F.) 28 Berlin, p 109-120


  • Pflüger, H.-J. & Burrows, M. (1987) A strand receptor with a central cell body synapses upon spiking local interneurones in the locust. J. Comp. Ph ysiol. A. 160, 295-304
  • Watson, A.H.D. & Pflüger, H.-J. (1987) The distribution of GAB A-like immuno- reactivity in relation to ganglion structure in the abdominal ne rve cord of the locust. Cell Tissue Res. 249, 391-402
  • Clarac, F.; Libersat, F.; Pflüger, H.-J. & Rathmayer, W. (1987) Motor pattern analysis in the shore crab (Carcinus maenas) walking freely in water and on land. J. Exp. Biol. 133, 395-415
  • Pflüger, H.-J. (1988) Control of local reflexes in insects. In "Posture and gait: Develop- ment, adaptation and modulation" (eds. B. Amblard, A. Berthoz , F. Clarac). Elsevier (Biomedical Div.), p 321-331 9
  • Pflüger, H.-J. & Kutsch, W. (1987) Pionier- und Wegweiserzell en im Nervensystem der Insekten: Entstehung, Interaktionen, Aufgaben und Schick sal. Biologie in unserer Zeit (BIUZ) 17, 1-8


  • Pflüger, H.-J.; Elson, R.; Binkle, U.; Schneider, H. ( 1986) The central nervous organi- zation of the motor neurones to a steering muscle in locusts. J. Exp. Biol. 120, 403-420
  • Elson, R.; Pflüger, H.-J. (1986) The activity of a steering musc le in locusts. J. Exp. Biol. 120, 421-441 Burrows, M. & Pflüger, H.-J. (1986) Processing by local interne urones of mechano- sensory signals involved in a leg reflex of the locust. J. of Ne uroscience 6, 2764-2777
  • Pflüger, H.-J. Von Pionieren und Wegweisern im Nervensystem , appeared on 11 June 1986 in "Neue Zuercher Zeitung" (NZZ). Supplement: Forsch ung und Technik.


  • Habilitation Senso-motorische Interaktionen bei Wanderheuschrecken: Die Aufklärung eines mechanorezeptiven Informationsweges. (Universität Konstanz 1985)


  • Watson, A.H.D.; Pflüger, H.-J. (1984) The ultrastructure of pr osternal sensory hair afferents within the locust central nervous system. Neuros cience 11, 269-279
  • Pflüger, H.-J. (1984) The large fourth abdominal intersegmental i nterneuron: A new type of windsensitive ventral cord interneuron in locusts. J. Comp. Neurol. 222, 343-357
  • Seyfarth, E.A.; Pflüger, H.-J. (1984) Proprioceptor distributi on and control of a muscle reflex in the tibia of spider legs. J. Neurobiol. 15, 365-374


  • Bräunig, P.; Pflüger, H.-J.; Hustert, R. (1983) The specifi city of central nervous projections of locust mechanoreceptors. J. Comp. Neurol. 218, 197-207


  • Pflüger, H.-J.; Tautz, J. (1982) Air movement sensitive hairs an d interneurons in Locusta migratoria. J. Comp. Physiol. 145, 369-380 10
  • Pflüger, H.-J. (1982) Parasiten gegen Wanderheuschrecken, appeare d on 10 February 1982 in Forschungsbeilage Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ) .


  • Cruse, H.; Pflüger, H.-J. (1981) Is the position of the femu r-tibia joint under feedback control in the walking stick insect? J. Exp. Biol. 92, 97-107
  • Bräunig, P.; Hustert, R.; Pflüger, H.-J. (1981) Distribution and specific central projections of mechanoreceptors in the thorax and proximal leg joints of locusts. I. Morphology, location and innervation of internal proprioceptors of pr o- and metathorax and their central projections. Cell Tissue Res. 216, 57-77
  • Pflüger, H.-J.; Bräunig, P.; Hustert, R. (1981) Distribution and specific central projections of mechanoreceptors in the thorax and proximal leg joints of locusts. II. The external mechanoreceptors: Hair plates and tactile hairs. Ce ll Tissue Res. 216, 79-96.
  • Hustert, R.; Pflüger, H.-J.; Bräunig, P. (1981) Distribution and specific central projections of mechanoreceptors in the thorax and proximal leg joints of locusts. III. The external mechanoreceptors: The campaniform sensilla. Cell T issue Res. 216, 97-111


  • Pflüger, H.-J. (1980a) Central nervous projections of sternal tri choid sensilla in locusts. Naturwissenschaften 67, 316-317
  • Pflüger, H.-J. (1980b) The function of hair sensilla on the loc ust's leg: The role of tibial hairs. J. Exp. Biol. 87, 163-175


  • Bässler, U.; Pflüger, H.-J. (1979) The control-system of the f emur-tibia-joint of the phasmid Extatosoma tiaratum and the control of rocking. J. Comp. P hysiol. 132, 209- 215


  • Pflüger, H.-J.; Burrows, M. (1978a) Locusts use the same basic motor pattern in swimming as in jumping and kicking. J. Exp. Biol. 75, 81-93
  • Pflüger, H.-J.; Burrows, M. (1978b) How the locust dries its elf. J. Exp. Biol. 75, 95-100